Healthy blood cholesterol levels consist of the following: high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the "good" cholesterol, should be more than 45 mg/dl; low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the "bad" cholesterol, should be less than 130 mg/dl; total cholesterol should be less than 200 mg/dl; triglyceride level should be less than 400 mg/dl. Healthy lifestyle habits are necessary to reduce high cholesterol levels (i.e., exercise, reduce body weight, avoid smoking, eat fish, reduce saturated fat intake, increase unsaturated fat intake, avoid processed foods, reduce sodium intake, eat more fruits and vegetables, increase fiber intake from whole grains, reduce alcohol intake, etc.).
Optimal blood pressure is less than 115 mm Hg systolic and 75 mm Hg diastolic, or 115/75. Pre-hypertension, stage 1 hypertension, and stage 2 hypertension are classified as 120 -139/80-89, 140-159/90-99, and greater than 160/100, respectively. Reducing blood pressure is dependent on healthy lifestyle habits (i.e., exercise, reducing body weight, eating fruits and vegetables, decreasing sodium intake, increasing potassium intake, reducing sugar and alcohol intake, etc.).
The physiological responses to exercise vary depending on the warm-up, conditioning, and cool-down phases. Physiological responses include variation in muscle tissue temperature, blood circulation, oxygenation, metabolic rate, etc.
The training principles consist of the principle of progressive resistance (i.e., increased weight), periodization, a plethora of training strategies (e.g., supersets, drop sets, speed training, etc.), range of motion (i.e., eccentric vs concentric), types of motion (i.e., isotonic, isometric, and isokinetic), types of resistance training (i.e., strength, power, endurance), and resistance training parameters (i.e., exercise, speed, sets, reps, load, rest period, etc.).
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for special populations may vary somewhat as more knowledge is obtained annually. Special populations consist of people who may have the following conditions: lower back pain; high blood pressure; heart disease; diabetes; asthma; coronary obstructive pulmonary disease; arthritis; high blood cholesterol; obesity; overweight; pregnant women; people with AIDS or cancer; osteoporosis; people with shoulder impingement; paraplegics and quadriplegics; multiple sclerosis; epilepsy; and cerebral palsy. Cardiovascular, weight training and flexibility categories with their specific parameters of frequency (i.e., days per wk), intensity (i.e., % HRR and % 1-RM), duration (i.e., minutes), and types of exercise are provided.
The joints of the human body consist of the neck, shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist, fingers, thumb, trunk, hip, knee, ankle, and toes. Each of these joints is characterized by unique range of motions (ROM). In addition, the body can move through three planes of motion including the frontal, sagittal and transverse planes.
Weight or resistance training affects body composition, the hormonal system, skeletal system, nervous system, cardiovascular system, pulmonary system, metabolic system, cognitive system, immune system, athletic performance, and quality of life. Specifically, weight training can improve your mood, increase your sex drive, help you to lose weight, help you to sleep better, improve your self-confidence, give you energy, make you more attractive to others, help you to look younger, improve your skin tone, eliminate aches and pains, lengthen your life, and allow you to eat more.
What are the characteristic differences between slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibers as well as the ATP, LA and oxidative energy systems?
Besides affecting your cardiovascular and pulmonary system, performing cardio exercise regularly affects your body composition, hormonal system, skeletal system, metabolic system, cognitive sytem, immune system, athletic performance, and quality of life.
Protein is essential to building and maintaining lean body mass (i.e., muscle, skin, hair, bone). Protein also provides energy and forms needed enzymes, antibodies, hemoglobin, hormones, lipoproteins (e.g., HDL, LDL), and neurotransmitters (e.g., epinephrine). You can find good sources of protein in meats, grains, dairy and eggs, vegetables, and nuts and seeds.
Tips to eating well include eating soft-textured foods, trying other foods to avoid an upset stomach, having others shop for you, getting home-delivered meals, eating with friends or family, reducing medication dosage, and finding free or low-cost food offered by senior citizen programs.
Not surprisingly, you should eat more soft-textured foods if you're having trouble eating things like pretzels, nuts, seeds, etc. Recommended foods include soft breads, cooked cereals, yogurt, mashed fruit, scrambled eggs, sweet potatoes, soup, and soft vegetables.
What are some of the important vitamins and minerals you should ensure you're getting enough of as you get older?
You should ensure you're getting enough calcium and vitamin D for muscle and bone health (a supplement may be recommended if you're lactose intolerant or don't eat dairy foods), vitamin B-12 to support your nervous system (a supplement is highly recommended after age 50), vitamin C (an excellent source is orange juice) and zinc for your immune system, and vitamin A to support good vision.
You should increase your intake of fibrous foods, particularly insoluble fiber. Fiber, a complex carbohydrate which digests slowly, provides satiety so eating foods high in fiber reduces your appetite. Result: You eat less food during the day and lose body weight and bodyfat. Most people do not eat enough fiber to maintain a healthy digestive tract. It is recommended that you should eat at least 25g of fiber daily. Eating adequate fiber will soften your stool (necessary if you're experiencing constipation) and facilitate healthy elimination of waste. There are two types of fiber: soluble and insoluble.