Warm-up should consist of dynamic stretching (e.g., bouncing stiff-leg deadlifts) relating to the muscle groups to be exercised (e.g., hamstrings). The primary purpose of the warm-up is to lubricate the joint articulations to facilitate increased range of motion, increased connective tissue extensibility to reduce muscle tendon tearing, and increased muscle temperature to increase the flow of nutrients and oxygen to the muscles.
Cool-down should consist of static stretches (e.g., standing hamstring stretch).The primary purpose of the cool-down is to decrease the temperature of the body, increase lactic acid removal from the muscles, and decrease muscle soreness and stiffness later. You have four choices when it comes to static stretching (i.e., lengthening and holding the stretch of a muscle):
Whichever option you choose is dependent on your preference--either/all method(s) is/are good. It may be more beneficial to stretch sooner for each muscle group exercised (i.e., immediately after a chest exercise) rather than later after the workout for all muscle groups exercised (i.e., after chest, back and bicep exercises). Regardless, the important concept here is to perform static stretching after exercising when the muscles are warm rather than before exercising when the muscles are cold. One word of caution: too much stretching can cause injury. Stretch each muscle for no more than 30 seconds duration and perform each stretch no more than four times per muscle.
Brian Danley, CFT
"Motivation is what gets you started. Habit is what keeps you going."
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I'm a personal trainer who loves to help others fulfill their health and fitness goals. I consider myself a bodybuilder in that I live the lifestyle of eating healthy food, working out regularly, and sculpting my body.